March 1991. The equivalent of an Iraqi brigade was destroyed at 73 Easting; it was the first ground defeat of the Republican Guard. Estimates vary on the exact number of casualties due to certain incidents of friendly fire, but the Iraqi damage is estimated at almost 1,000 soldiers killed in action and more than 1,000 taken prisoner. The Battle was part of the larger operation and, as it went on, the Third and First Squadron troops in the southern part of the zone continued to fight through the security area of the Republican Guard and fix enemy units of the 12th Armored Division. Bradleys, despite being equipped with a much smaller 25mm “Bushmaster” cannon, were outfitted with tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missiles (TOWs). The iconic photos of Iraq’s swift defeat were plastered all over the news as the fleeing army set oil fields ablaze to cover their retreat and exposed flanks. The mission of 2nd ACR was to motor eastward. But that would soon change. The Battle of 73 Easting was fought on 26 February 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, between United States armored forces of the VII Corps and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard and its Tawakalna Division. While advancing, the regiment was to clear out any enemy security forces and neutralize the Republican Guard. At 0522 the Regiment received Corps Frag Plan Seven, which adjusted its zone and objective and directed all Corps units to move east to attack units of the Republican Guard. Third Squadron, operating in the center, destroyed a T-72 tank before 8 a.m., establishing the first ground contact with the Iraqi Republican Guard’s Tawakalna Division. Neil earned a master’s degree in journalism from the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University. The battle took place about 60 miles (97 km) east of and 18 hours after the Battle of Al Busayyah, and several kilometers east of the Battle of 73 Easting, which had ended just two hours earlier. The primary tanks used by the Iraqis were the model T-55, T-62, and T-72. Also, the optics on the American vehicles allowed for “dark” engagements, meaning that the vehicles could fight at night and didn’t necessarily need a clear line of sight to engage. By 3:00 p.m. Third Armored Division had reached the 50 Easting and begun to move abreast of the Regiment to the north. By 22:30, the battle at 2nd ACR's front, at 74 Easting, was ending with most of the engaged Iraqi elements burning or destroyed as the 1st Infantry Division began its forward passage of lines. [10][11] The troop returned fire with its Abramses and Bradleys, silenced the Iraqi guns, took prisoners, and continued east with the two tank platoons leading. At 4:10 p.m. Eagle Troop received fire from an Iraqi infantry position in a cluster of buildings at UTM PU 6801. By 9 p.m., G Troop had expended all its TOW missiles and was becoming desperately short on 25mm and 120mm cannon ammunition. Air cavalry operations ceased just after 9 a.m. and would not resume until afternoon. On the night of 23/24 February, in accordance with General Norman Schwarzkopf's plan for the ground assault called "Operation Desert Sabre", VII Corps raced east from Saudi Arabia into Iraq in a maneuver later nicknamed the "Hail Mary." Massive troop desertions and surrenders were a common sight across the Iraqi landscape. VII Corps Fragmentary Plan Seven, issued during the night of February 25–26, made the 60 Easting the Regiment's initial limit of advance. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. By 6:30, the first of several waves of Iraqi T-72 and T-55 tanks advanced into the wadi. The tactics that Army units use to fight future battles will vary considerably from those employed in Desert Storm. There he encountered and destroyed another enemy tank unit of eighteen T-72s. Sporadic fire continued throughout the night but no major engagements occurred after 10 p.m. The American scouts returned fire with their tanks and Bradleys, silenced the Iraqi guns, took prisoners, and continued east. Follow Neil Fotre: The brigade commander, Colonel David Weisman, decided to pull the battalions back, consolidate, and use his artillery to destroy the aggressive Iraqi infantry. The major U.S. unit that was involved in the battle was the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (2nd ACR). The Battle of 73 Easting, Gulf War : papers concerning the simulation project, M1451. By then, G Troop had destroyed “at least two companies of Iraqi armor. All Rights Reserved. The American vehicles, on the other hand, possess “sloped” or “angled” armor that stood a much higher chance of deflecting enemy projectiles. [7] Lt Colonel Mike Kobbe’s Second Squadron troops all reported resistance from small Tawakalna Division security outposts while Third Squadron destroyed similar outposts in the Regimental center. The Regiment's mission was to strip away enemy security forces, clear the way of significant defenses and locate the Republican Guard's defensive positions so they could be engaged by the full weight of the armored forces.[2]. Captain McMaster, leading the attack, immediately engaged that position, destroying the first of the eight enemy tanks to his front. The stunning performance of American troops in the battle is taught as doctrine to this day. The end of America's war in Vietnam saw a US military in crisis- its morale all but depleted and its combat expertise watered down by massive conscription. April 1991, Lt Colonel Scott Marcy, Memorandum for Record, Operation DESERT STORM, Headquarters 3d Squadron, 2d ACR, 8 March 1991, Major John Klemencic, Regimental Fire Support Officer, Fire Support Mission Summary. Attack helicopters flew in support of air scouts at key intervals during the day and the 2-1 Aviation Battalion’s Apache helicopters, led by Lt Colonel Jon Ward, destroyed two batteries of enemy artillery and struck march units along the IPSA Pipeline Road at 4:30 p.m., just as the battle began in earnest. Crawley, Vince, Armor, May–June 1991, VOL C, #3. [9] Scout and attack helicopters of Fourth Squadron and 2-1 Aviation Battalion (AH 64 Apache) supported the fight as weather allowed. Combat became so intense at times that only massed artillery and mortar fires, attack helicopters and Air Force close air support prevented the enemy from closing with G Troop. The operation escalated into a full-out battle as E Troop (call sign “Eagle”) maneuvered to the 70 Easting around 3:45 p.m. Nonetheless, the 2nd ACR's three squadrons, along with the 1st Infantry Division's two leading brigades, destroyed two Iraqi brigades (18th Mechanized Brigade and 37th Armored Brigade) of the Tawakalna Division. In moving to and through the Battle of 73 Easting, 2nd ACR and the 1st Infantry division's lead brigades destroyed 160 tanks, 180 personnel carriers, 12 artillery pieces and more than 80 wheeled vehicles, along with several anti-aircraft artillery systems during the battle. The Battle of 73 Easting refers narrowly to the violent armored combat action that took place in the final hours of 2nd ACR’s covering force operation in the zone of Second Squadron and in the northern third of the Third Squadron zone. Heavy combat then spread to the south as I Troop of the Third Squadron closed the gap between the two squadrons and joined the fight. All three squadrons were in contact with security forces by 9 a.m. but a violent sandstorm blew into the area and movement to the Regiment’s limit of advance, the 60 Easting, took until 11 a.m. These staggering figures came at a cost of a mere 12 Americans killed in action. By 16:10, further south near the east-west UTM coordinate line 00 Northing, 2nd ACR's E- (“Eagle”) Troop received fire from an Iraqi dismounted outpost, a dug-in Iraqi ZSU-23-4 and several occupied buildings in an Iraqi village. The 12th Armored Division's assignment to the Republican Guard was not known at the time of the engagement.[5]. There was some ground contact, but most of the destruction was visited upon the Adnan ID by artillery and Apaches. He covers military and veteran community topics. In the ensuing battle, many American units advanced past Iraqi tanks and crews, who were in shelters or had not yet turned on their engines and so did not appear to be threats in the American crew's thermal sights. Sartiano’s men engaged Iraqi 18th Brigade tanks in defensive positions initially. Iron Troop of Third Squadron had halted around the 67 Easting to control the limit of advance with its tank cannon. As the troop moved north to secure its northern boundary around 4:45, it came under fire from the same group of buildings E Troop had fought through an hour earlier. Battle of 73 Easting. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance. Additionally other Iraqi units attempted to retreat to the north along the wadi and that led them directly into G Troop’s position. ", The main U.S. unit in the battle was the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (2nd ACR), a 4,500 man reconnaissance and security element assigned to VII Corps. (Lt Colonel Kobbe had pulled his Troop F out of the Second Squadron’s leading echelon when his zone narrowed.) The 1991 Persian Gulf War was the first of America’s conflicts where a large, standing military force was maintained , equipped, and trained to be ready for the early battles of a major regional conflict. They had taken defensive positions near a north-south coordinate line, commonly referred to as an “easting.” These coordinate lines are measured in kilometers and can be read via a global positioning satellite (GPS). Army historians and simulation modelers thoroughly interviewed the American participants, and paced the battlefield meter by meter. Phase l… Farther east, two brigades of the Iraqi Medina Division were trying to set up a defense line around what had been designated Phase Line Lime. At about 4:20 Eagle crested a low rise and surprised an Iraqi tank company set up in a reverse slope defense on the 70 Easting. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, http://www.scribd.com/doc/9703733/73-Easting-Info, "The last battle of division Tawakalna, jewel of the Republican Guard", http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?16927-The-Last-Stand-Of-The-Tawakalna-Gulf-War-I, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/tawakalna.htm, The Battle of 73 Easting and the Road to the Synthetic Battlefield, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_73_Easting?oldid=3947591. The Battle of 73 Easting was one of many fights in Desert Storm. The Battle of 73 Easting and the movement to contact south of the battle brought the Regiment's covering force mission for VII Corps to its conclusion. BATTLE OF 73 EASTING BY CAPTAIN HoRo MCMASTER Eagle Troop, Second Squadron, Second Armored Cavalry Regiment (During the war with Iraq on February 26,1991) DONOVAN RESEARCH LlBw FORT DONOVAN BENNJNG RESEARCH a 31905 UBRAI?~ % 8150 MARNE ROAD, BLOG 9230 FORT BENNING, GA 31905 706-545.5661 . The 12 M1A1 tanks of Eagle Troop destroyed 28 Iraqi tanks, 16 personnel carriers and 30 trucks in 23 minutes with no American losses.[12]. At the peak of its military might, the Iraqi Army touted the fourth-largest army on the planet. Bush was banking on the six-week offensive of Operation Desert Storm to solidify his re-election. Sandstorms slowed this movement throughout the day, restricting visibility to as little as 400 metres (1,300 ft). The Fourth Squadron (the combat aviation squadron) flew reconnaissance and attack missions chiefly in the northern and central zones. Fierce fighting ensued as wave after wave of tanks and infantry charged the troop. Twitter This was the first determined defense the Regiment had encountered in its three days of operations. It consisted of three ground squadrons (1st, 2nd and 3rd), an aviation (attack helicopter) squadron (4th), and a support squadron. The 2ACR combat team numbered around 10,000 soldiers. The 1st Infantry Division passed through the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment's line in total darkness and continued to advance on Objective Norfolk, an area encompassing the intersection of the IPSA Pipeline Road, several desert trails, and a large Iraqi supply depot. Each of those battles was different. The Battle of 73 Easting refers narrowly to the violent armored combat action that took place in the final hours of 2nd ACR’s covering force operation in the zone of Second Squadron and in the northern third of the Third Squadron zone. They covered the advance of the 3rd Armored Division until late on February 25 and then covered the movement of 1st Infantry Division as it moved north from its initial objectives. The 2nd ACR's limit of advance changed during the operation. Gary Bloedorn, Institute for Defense Analysis, “Data Collection Methodology”; Major Douglas Lute, Headquarters Department of the Army, “The Battle of 73 Easting: The Regiment’s Perspective”), “Extract of the Second Armored Cavalry Regiment’s Operations Log”, Headquarters Second Armored Cavalry, ca. Linkedin. Individual and unit experiences in the same battle often vary widely. Objective Norfolk was located west of Phase Line Kiwi, east of Phase Line Smash, and north of Phase Line Grape. More enemy fire came in and was immediately returned. Still, the Iraqi troops had been surprised because of the inclement weather and were quickly destroyed by the better trained and better equipped American troops. The Bradley's TOW launcher was inoperative, and the 25mm Bushmaster Cannon had jammed. Essentially, the fourth-largest Army in the world. These staggering figures came at a cost of a mere 12 Americans killed in action. The 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment had an initial encounter with ten Iraqi tanks which were destroyed near longitudinal line 60 (Easting 60); they moved on until the bulk of the battle occurred at 73 Easting. McMaster and his fellow 2nd ACR troopers, 73 Easting has had as much influence on the military as any battle since Jutland in 1916. During that engagement, TOW missile fire from a K Troop Bradley struck and destroyed an I Troop Bradley wounding all three crewmen. The number of enemy infantry casualties caused by indirect fire proved impossible to determine but almost certainly exceeded the thirty infantrymen claimed.[20]. The Corps had two goals: to cut off Iraqi retreat from Kuwait, and to destroy five Republican Guard divisions near the Iraq-Kuwait border that might attack the Arab and Marine units moving into Kuwait to the south. Following an extensive bombing campaign and a feint into southern Iraq in early February 1991, Coalition forces launched a full invasion on 24 February. The Battle of 73 Easting was a lopsided victory. The visibility was almost zero because of dust storms and nightfall. The primary battle was conducted by 2ACR's three squadrons of about 400 soldiers, along with the 1st Infantry Division's two leading brigades, who attacked and destroyed the Iraqi 18th Mechanized Brigade and 37th Armored Brigade of the Tawakalna Division, each consisting of between 2,500 to 3,000 personnel. After 2ACR made contact with the Rep… The Soviet-era vehicles could not withstand the impact of these devastating charges. [19] The 210th FA Brigade Commander estimated that his two FA battalions and single MLRS battery destroyed 17 tanks, seven APCs, six artillery pieces and around 70 other vehicles. Within 24 hours, most of the other Iraqi brigades were gone. US Losses. Draft Report The Battle of 73 Easting, 26 February 1991, a historical introduction to a simulation. During the operation the Regiment covered the advance of three different U.S. divisions in turn, moved 120 miles in eighty-two hours and fought elements of five Iraqi Divisions. Orlansky and J Thorpe, editors, IDA Doc D-1110, IDA, Alexandria VA, April 1992. The Iraqi force greatly outnumbered the American units. The Iraqis suffered nearly 1,000 casualties, 85 tanks destroyed, 40 armored vehicles destroyed, 30 wheeled-vehicles lost, and two artillery batteries annihilated. The mechanized force was brought to its knees with minimal American casualties. April 1991. The U.S. suffered 12 men killed, 57 men wounded, and 32 vehicles destroyed or damaged. The regiment was comprised of three ground squadrons, an aviation squadron, and a support squadron. Initial Iraqi resistance was light and scattered and the 2nd ACR fought only minor engagements until 25 February. Each troop comprised 120 soldiers, 12 M3 Bradley fighting vehicles and nine M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks. His two tank platoons finished the rest. Essentially, the fourth-largest Army in the world was neutralized in less than 96 hours through the use of well-trained tactics and superior technology. [21] The violent battle at 73 Easting fixed the southern forces of the Iraqi Republican Guard Corps and permitted the Corps Commander to launch First Infantry Division into the depths of the Iraqi defenses and on into Kuwait. Michael D. Krause, “The Battle of 73 Easting, 26 February 1991”, A Joint Center of Military History and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Project, 24 May 1991, “Extract of the Second Armored Cavalry Regiment’s Operations Log”, Second Armored Cavalry, ca. Lt Colonel Tony Isaac’s First Squadron meanwhile encountered scattered enemy positions in the south and by noon had reported destroying twenty-three T-55 tanks, twenty-five armored personnel carriers, six artillery pieces and numerous trucks. As the Regiment’s northernmost unit, G Troop secured an open flank until the 3rd Armored Division’s cavalry squadron arrived to occupy its own positions along the 70 Easting. The battle was described by the Military Channel as "the last great tank battle of the 20th century. in less than 96 hours through the use of well-trained tactics and superior technology. Iraqi T-62 knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire. At the same time the Third and First squadrons in the center and south moved to clear their zones, encountering T-72s in Third Squadron’s north and T-62 and T-55 tanks of the Iraqi 12th Armored Division further south.[6]. The Battle of 73 Easting (a north-south grid line on the map) was one of many fights in Desert Storm. Twenty-five years ago, the Battle of 73 Easting pit just part of the U.S. Army’s 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment against Saddam Hussein’s elite Iraqi Republican Guard. M1A1 Abrams Tanks from the 3rd Armored Division Brigade along the Line of Departure. In the largest of this series of running battles, the British destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured an Iraqi division commander. The war began when Iraqi President Saddam Hussain invaded the small neighboring country of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. The Iraqi Republican Guard and its Tawakalna Division were all that remained of the Iraqi military in the final days of the U.S. offensive. The cannons on the Abrams carried a higher caliber round, far superior to the Iraqi tanks. Within each squadron were three cavalry troops, a tank company, a self-propelled howitzer battery, and a headquarters troop. US Losses. [1], The 2nd ACR was to advance east, locate and engage the enemy and determine his dispositions and then allow the mechanized brigades of the 1st ID to pass through to finish destroying the Iraqis. While many movies have been made about battles in the current Global War on Terror and the controversial Vietnam War, few offer a glimpse into the Persian Gulf War and its lesser-known engagements. [16], Artillery fire and air strikes played a large role in the battle, especially in the far north. The majority of the war was filled with airstrikes and a sweeping offensive by 20,000 American troops along with a coalition of foreign militaries from several other countries. Copyright © 2020 Coffee or Die Magazine. Continuing his attack past the 70 limit of advance, he fought his way through an infantry defensive position and on to high ground along the 74 Easting. First Squadron, the Regiment’s southernmost squadron cleared its zone of remnants of the 50th Armored Brigade before making contact with the 37th Brigade of the 12th Iraqi Armored Division, fighting to the south of the Tawakalna Division. American media was able to shed a patriotic spotlight on what was known as the American military’s “shock and awe” tactic to defeat Saddam Hussein’s army. Lute, The Regiment's Perspective, IDA Conference papers, p. I-115. The order adjusted the boundary between 2ACR and the 1st UK Armoured Division to the south and the early movements of the day involved re-orienting the Regiment’s squadrons and coordinating with 1st UK Armored Division along the new boundary, the 80 Northing.[6]. Estimates vary on the exact number of casualties due to certain incidents of friendly fire, but the Iraqi damage is estimated at almost 1,000 soldiers killed in action and more than 1,000 taken prisoner. 73 Easting. Each troop was comprised of 120 soldiers, 12 M3 Bradley fighting vehicles, and nine M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks. Three kilometers to the east McMaster could see T-72s in prepared positions. President George H.W. Moller died instantly and the remainder of the crew evacuated the damaged vehicle. Committing the Division in that area would keep it clear of the chaotic post-battle conditions to the north and, more importantly, would steer the main attack around now known positions of the Republican Guard divisions. Some confusion resulted, with enemy tanks and anti-tank infantry crews operating in the rear of the American lead units, and several friendly fire incidents occurred. Located behind the Bradleys were mighty M1A1 Abrams tanks that provided rear protection while the scouts helped to identify enemy positions. The Regiment used artillery fire and some close air support between the end of active fighting and the arrival of the 1st Infantry Division at the line of contact. Other 2nd ACR Troops I (call sign “Iron”), K (“Killer”), and G (“Ghost”) joined the fight minutes later. Far from the textbook actions and decisions of H.R. By 4:40, Captain Joe Sartiano’s G Troop had gained a position on a ridge overlooking a wadi at and parallel to the 73 Easting, north of E Troop. In the early morning hours, Lt Colonel Scott Marcy’s Third Squadron fought companies of the Iraqi 50th Armored Brigade, which had moved into the Regiment’s southern area to confirm reports that allied units were in the vicinity. Amidst now-famous world news coverage of airstrikes and bunker-busting missiles, the Iraqi Army harbored a massive armored vehicle force that rivaled many other countries in the world. All Iraqi units occupied well-constructed defensive emplacements and had prepared alternate positions which enabled them to reorient to the west to face VII Corps’s attack. [22] The battle of 73 Easting, 26 February 1991: A historical introduction to a simulation Coffee or Die Magazine’s Top Stories of 2020, 2020 Coffee or Die Holiday Gift Guide: Must-Read Books, Coffee or Die Magazine’s Very Unbiased 2020 Holiday Gift Guide, ‘Die Hard’ Is A Christmas Movie — Prove Me Wrong, The Fires of Babylon: Eagle Troop and the Battle of 73 Easting. The Iraqis had halted the 1st Infantry Division's initial push into their sector only temporarily. This area was referred to by a grid coordinate line because the desert was completely void of any geographic landmarks or population center. You’d have to dig even deeper for significant battles involving armored tanks. Second ACR began the 26th of February on the VII Corps Objective SMASH still oriented to the northeast. This missile is easy to operate and highly effective at destroying enemy armor. Weather restricted flight operations severely, however, and kept Fourth Squadron grounded for about half of the daylight hours. Each of those battles was different. Unusually for a corps covering force, the Regiment lacked a reserve tank or mechanized infantry battalion. of the investment made in it: that is, the collection of data from the field of battle immediately following the event for the purpose of creating an after-action battle replication. Far from the textbook actions and decisions of H.R. ” and the documentary “The Last Great Tank Battle of the 20th Century,” the Battle of 73 Easting was fought on Feb. 26, 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, also known as Operation Desert Storm. Lt General Franks accepted that recommendation and, beginning around 2 a.m. two brigades of the 1st Infantry Division passed through the Regiment’s positions along the 70 Easting. They advanced three more kilometers east to the 70 Easting line. Davis, 1LT Daniel L., "A Swift Kick, 2nd ACR's Taming of the Guard.". This was the start of nearly two days of continuous combat for the British, some of the toughest fighting of the war. The 2nd ACR's limit of advance changed during the operation. Publication Rights While Special Collections is the owner of the physical and digital items, permission to examine collection materials is not an authorization to publish. Iraqi Losses. Each of the Iraqi units possessed approximately 3,000 soldiers and had significantly more armored vehicles. American Graffiti: A Look at How Tankers Have Prepared Their Armor for Battle, Tanks Reigned Supreme on WWII Battlefields, As US Forces Withdraw from Somalia, the Navy and Marines Park Some Serious Firepower Offshore, 9 More of the Best Coffee Moments in American Movie History, WATCH: F/A-18C Hornets Made History Dogfighting & Dropping Bombs on Same Mission During Gulf War, Here Are the 10 Best Military Movies of 2020, The Nashville Christmas Bomber: Here’s What We Know So Far, Web Design and Development by Hire Jordan Smith. The Regiment employed artillery fire from the supporting 210th Field Artillery Brigade, air strikes, and attack helicopters (both Apaches of 2-1 Aviation and Cobras of Fourth Squadron) against the Republican Guard units as the armored cavalry squadrons moved east through the security zone. G Troop’s attack to the north of Captain HR McMaster’s E Troop made contact with defending units farther east and combat there became intense around 4:45 p.m. Fighting continued into darkness as the Iraqi division commander reinforced the 18th Brigade with his 9th Armored Brigade in the G Troop zone. Bush was banking on the six-week offensive of Operation Desert Storm to solidify his re-election. The Battle of 73 Easting did not last long. President George H.W. "Dragon's Roar: 1-37 Armor in the Battle of 73 Easting." [9], G Troop lost one M3 Bradley to Iraqi IFV fire and one soldier, Sergeant Nels A. Moller, the gunner of the Bradley, was killed. First Infantry Division’s movement to join the fight was taking longer than expected, however. Janus Simulation Results Battle of 73 Easting. Hundreds of Iraqi infantrymen and their lightly armored transporters lay scattered on the wadi floor. “Second Armored Cavalry Regiment: Operation Desert Storm”, Major Steve Gravlin, Troop Information Paper, Headquarters 2d ACR, April 1991, “Summary of Fire Missions, 25 and 26 February 1991”, Major John Klemencic, Second Armored Cavalry Regiment, February 1991, Memorandum for Record, Operation DESERT STORM, Lt Colonel Scott Marcy, Headquarters 3d Squadron, 2d ACR, 8 March 1991, Conference Papers from “73 Easting: “Lessons Learned from Desert Storm via Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology, 27–29 August 1991”,J. The Battle of 73 Easting was an armored engagement during the Persian Gulf War to force the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. It had the ability to raise 2 million troops if reserve units were called to arms. The Regiment moved from the 60 Easting with eight of its nine cavalry troops generally abreast of each other. The Battle of 73 Easting was fought on 26 February 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, between United States armored forces of the VII Corps and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard and its Tawakalna Division. Despite extensive aerial and artillery bombardment by U.S. forces, most Iraqi units defending along the 70 Easting remained effective. Iraqi Type 69 tanks after an attack by the 1st United Kingdom Armoured Division during Operation Desert Storm. The regiment’s advance was led by its scouts in M3A1 Bradleys. Armor, May–June 1992, VOL CI, #3. The Battle of 73 Easting: The True Story Behind Desert Storm’s Most Intense Tank Battle. The battle of 73 Easting, 26 February 1991: A historical introduction to a simulation [Krause, Michael D] on Amazon.com. McMaster and his fellow 2nd ACR troopers, 73 Easting has had as much influence on the military as any battle since Jutland in 1916. There he confronted T-72s in defensive positions south of those E Troop had just destroyed. 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