For other uses, see, A game of table tennis at the professional level, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHodges1993 (, finished in the top 2 at the 2015 European Games, List of naturalised Olympic table tennis players from China, won every possible Olympic medal in the sport, have competed in both the Paralympics and Olympics, table tennis for persons with a disability, Disability classification in table tennis, "A Brief History of Table Tennis/Ping-Pong", International Table Tennis Federation 2011, "Ping-Pong as Mind Game (Although a Good Topspin Helps)", "A Comprehensive History of Table Tennis", "Inventors of ping-pong say Mayor Boris Johnson is wrong", "Are There Any Trademark Rights Left In The Term Ping-Pong? A row of books stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball. In the 19th century, the Play is now restricted. [51], The Seemiller grip is named after the American table tennis champion Danny Seemiller, who used it. In game play, the player serving the ball commences a play. Ma Lin (China) won both the Olympic gold and the World Cup, but lost (three times, in 1999, 2005, and 2007) in the finals of the World Championships. Twenty Four years later, the first official world Table Tennis Championship took place in 1926 in London and Hungarian, Dr. Jacobi won. Ping-pong name was later turned into table tennis in 1921–22 with the rejuvenation of old Ping-Pong Association (formed in 1902). In this section documents about the history of table tennis are available: Historical Documents Hall of Fame History of ITTF Rankings (1926-1987, 1987-2000) History of Table Tennis in the Olympic Games ITTF Management ITTF Merit Awards Past World Championships Results Rules Evolution Table Tennis Magazine World Champions World Championships & Olympic Games Summary World Team … A quick, smooth follow-through is desirable. Six Play for China", "What's next for Singapore on the international table tennis sports scene? One year later (1926), the International Table Tennis Federation was formed. 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve. [35] It is also common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand, usually hidden under the table, allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. The player, standing in a square-on position, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. It involves the feet being spaced wider than shoulder width and a partial crouch being adopted; the crouch is an efficient posture for moving quickly from and also preloads the muscles enabling a more dynamic movement. Philippine Table Tennis Federation, Inc.(PTTFI) replaced TATAP, which was later certified as a regular member of POC and the recognise … A push can be difficult to attack because the backspin on the ball causes it to drop toward the table upon striking the opponent's racket. A notable exception is Michael Maze. Players may tailor their stance based upon their personal preferences, and alter it during the game based upon the specific circumstances.[54]. [7] This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting. The history of table tennis began in England in the nineteenth century, this being a way to play tennis in an enclosed space. Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire. He used a dining table and filed a set of books at the middle of the table. The beginning of this Ping pong game flourishes in the 1880s. Well, table tennis is a sport you can enjoy whatever your age or physical attributes. The opponent fails to make a correct service or return. For example, if A is paired with B, X is paired with Y, A is the server and X is the receiver. The game began in the 1880s, when lawn tennis players adapted their game to play indoors during the winter. The origins of table tennis It was in England, in the late 19th century, that table tennis made its appearance. History. Table Tennis emerged in England in the early 20th century with its trademark name; Ping-Pong. This is known as "closing the racket". Often, the best option for beginners is to simply push the ball back again, resulting in pushing rallies. The order of play shall be A→X→B→Y. Most professional players nowadays, such as Ding Ning, Timo Boll and Zhang Jike, primarily use loop for offense. [18][19] First, the older 38 mm (1.50 in) balls were officially replaced by 40 mm (1.57 in) balls in October 2000. The original association had broken up about 1905, though apparently the game continued to be played in parts of England outside London and by the 1920s was being played in many countries. A let is also called foul service, if the ball hits the server's side of the table, if the ball does not pass further than the edge and if the ball hits the table edge and hits the net. Pushing can have advantages in some circumstances, such as when the opponent makes easy mistakes. The push (or "slice" in Asia) is usually used for keeping the point alive and creating offensive opportunities. To help a player distinguish between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. It is the position every player initially adopts when receiving and returns to after playing a shot in order to be prepared to make the next shot. HISTORY Great Britain is considered to be the home of table tennis. [21] This imparts topspin to the ball. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. It was followed by the Fédération Internationale de Tennis de Table (International Table Tennis Federation), founded at a 1926 meeting in Berlin by England, Sweden, Hungary, India, Denmark, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The ITTF also changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. The official rules for table tennis are in the ITTF handbook. In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Japanese and Korean penholders will often use a square-headed racket for an away-from-the-table style of play. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server. After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. (It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.) However, the Chinese developed a technique in the 1990s in which a penholder uses both sides of the racket to hit the ball, where the player produces a backhand stroke (most often topspin) known as a reverse penhold backhand by turning the traditional side of the racket to face one's self, and striking the ball with the opposite side of the racket. The views and opinions expressed in the History of US Table Tennis series are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the policies or positions of US Table Tennis. [36] The server first stands with the ball held on the open palm of the hand not carrying the paddle, called the freehand, and tosses the ball directly upward without spin, at least 16 cm (6.3 in) high. Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent. A push resembles a tennis slice: the racket cuts underneath the ball, imparting backspin and causing the ball to float slowly to the other side of the table. A Let is a rally of which the result is not scored, and is called in the following circumstances:[39]. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. Table tennis became an Olympic sport in 1988, with singles and doubles competition for men and women. Otherwise, X is the next server and the order becomes X→A→Y→B. [48] Sometimes a combination of the two styles occurs, wherein the middle, ring and fourth fingers are straight, but still stacked, or where all fingers may be touching the back of the racket, but are also in contact with one another. When a pair reaches 5 points in the final game, the pairs must switch ends of the table and change the receiver to reverse the order of play. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground. The Seemiller grip's popularity reached its apex in 1985 when four (Danny Seemiller, Ricky Seemiller, Eric Boggan and Brian Masters) of the United States' five participants in the World Championships used it. For example, the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) is the governing body responsible for table tennis in Europe. [50] Many world class European and East Asian players currently use the shakehand grip, and it is generally accepted that shakehands is easier to learn than penholder, allowing a broader range of playing styles both offensive and defensive. Players are equipped with a laminated wooden racket covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. The sport originated in Victorian England, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. Jörgen Persson (Sweden) also won the titles except the Olympic Games. The object is speed instead of spin, so the player hits through the ball, which is directed slightly downward over the net in a low arc. A brief history of table tennis. Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. [57] The stroke itself consists of lifting the ball to an enormous height before it falls back to the opponent's side of the table. The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. It is thought that upper-class Victorians in England invented table tennis in the 1880s as a genteel, after-dinner alternative to lawn tennis, using whatever they could find as equipment. A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. [84], On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competitor,[vague] the European Club Cup, where the top club teams from European countries compete. Lob is used less frequently by professional players. A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent, and potentially opening up an opportunity for a more powerful attack. The sound created by these hard bats gave the game its next name ‘ping-pong’. The primitive association had dissolved by 1905. Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. Backspin is where the bottom half of the ball is rotating away from the player, and is imparted by striking the base of the ball with a downward movement. [15], In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game dramatically,[1] introducing greater spin and speed. A table tennis match at the Asia-Europe All Stars Series event in Beijing, 2010. When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. If a game is unfinished after 10 minutes' play and fewer than 18 points have been scored, the expedite system is initiated. [31] The player has the right to inspect their opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what colour it is. [33], According to ITTF rule 2.13.1, the first service is decided by lot,[34] normally a coin toss. A line of books would often be the net, the rounded top of a champagne cork would be the ball and occasionally a cigar box lid would be a racket. The shakehand grip is so-named because the racket is grasped as if one is performing a handshake. [11] The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) followed in 1926. The name table tennis was adopted in 1921–22 when the old Ping-Pong Association formed in 1902 was revived. The racket is generally perpendicular to the direction of the stroke. A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke. The ball touches the net in service (service), provided the service is otherwise correct or the ball is obstructed by the player on the receiving side. The shakehand grip's simplicity and versatility, coupled with the acceptance among top-level Chinese trainers that the European style of play should be emulated and trained against, has established it as a common grip even in China. Whether you're young or old, able-bodied or disabled, everyone can enjoy playing table tennis at some level. [48] The style of play among penhold players can vary greatly from player to player. The racket may be any size, weight, or shape. 1901 Hamley’s of Regent Street, then a sports manufacturer, was the first to manufacture a racket for wiff waff. Kenta Matsudaira is known for primarily using counter-hit for offense. Since only one side of the racquet is used to hit the ball, two contrasting rubber types can be applied to the blade, offering the advantage of "twiddling" the racket to fool the opponent. In table tennis topspin is regarded as an offensive technique due to increased ball speed, lower bio-mechanical efficiency and the pressure that it puts on the opponent by reducing reaction time. This stroke is the predominant technique used in professional competition because it gives the opponent less time to respond. The speed limitation of the topspin stroke is minor compared to the backspin stroke. Dining-room tables and balls of cork made up some of the early equipment that was used. For history of table tennis in a particular country, see the Country in Focus page. From 1988 until 2004, these were men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. [73] A Grand Slam is earned by a player who wins singles crowns at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and World Cup. Due to the initial lift of the ball, there is a limit on how much speed with which one can hit the ball without missing the opponent's side of the table. By the mid-1990s more than 165 national associations were members. Watch as Jean-Michel Saive (BEL) plays against good friend Chuang Chih-Yuan (TPE) Tai-Ben International. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. It is nearly always done with a forehand stroke. The history of table tennis (also known as ping pong) has been the subject of extensive research, notably by Englishman Gerald Gurney and by American's Charles "Chuck" Hoey and Tim Boggan. [85] There are also national bodies and other local authorities responsible for the sport, such as USA Table Tennis (USATT), which is the national governing body for table tennis in the United States.[13]. The net is 6 feet (1.8 metres) long, and its upper edge along the whole length is 6 inches (15.25 cm) above the playing surface. A player will typically execute a smash when the opponent has returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net. It is not a fault if the ball accidentally hits one's hand or fingers and then subsequently hits the racket. Hancock Ltd. If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. Increasing the speed of the game, slowing it down, varying the direction of or imparting different spin or pace to the ball, and employing gentle drop shots over the net when the opponent is out of position are some of the tactics that may be used to support the strategy planned. Traditionally these square-headed rackets feature a block of cork on top of the handle, as well as a thin layer of cork on the back of the racket, for increased grip and comfort. Finger spin was universally banned in 1937. The game was invented in England in the early days of the 20th century and was originally called Ping-Pong, a trade name. The serve is made from behind the end of the table, the server tossing the ball upward from the palm of the free hand and striking it as it descends so that it first bounces on the server’s own court and then, passing over the net, bounces on the opponent’s court. The ball may still be attacked, however, and the resulting shot is called a flip because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action. Seemiller paired inverted rubber with anti-spin rubber. In the 1950s, table tennis became integral to the countries of Asia. The opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface is not covered with rubber. If the serve is a clear failure or is doubted again by the umpire after the warning, the receiver scores a point. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. A point is scored when the server fails to make a good service, when either player fails to make a good return, or when either player commits a specified infraction (e.g., touches the playing surface with a free hand while the ball is in play). In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. The International Table Tennis Federation, which serves as the governing body for the game (ITTF) was also founded in 1926. Then World No 1 table tennis professional Vladimir Samsonov threatened to pull out of the World Cup, which was scheduled to debut the new regulation ball on October 12, 2000. In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. [citation needed] It is actually possible to smash with backspin offensively, but only on high balls that are close to the net. The receiving pair, however, can only choose in the first game of the match. [26][27] The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matte, divided into two halves by a net at 15.25 cm (6.0 in) in height. The history of table tennis is coloured by a great many champions, including the Austro-Briton Richard Bergmann, Franco-Polish player Aloizy Ehrilich and the Romanian Angelica Rozeanu. This stroke has greatly improved and strengthened the penhold style both physically and psychologically, as it eliminates the strategic weakness of the traditional penhold backhand. In each game of a doubles match, the pair having the right to serve first shall choose which of them will do so. The counter-hit is usually a counterattack against drives, normally high loop drives. 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